Research Catalog

The science of chocolate / Stephen T. Beckett.

Title
The science of chocolate / Stephen T. Beckett.
Author
Beckett, S. T.
Publication
Cambridge, UK : RSC Publishing, c2008.

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FormatAccessStatusCall NumberLocation
TextRequest in advanceRequestTP640 .B43 2008Offsite

Details

Additional Authors
Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain)
Description
xii, 240 p. : ill. (some col.); 24 cm.
Subjects
Note
  • Originally published: 2000.
Bibliography (note)
  • Includes bibliographical references and index.
Processing Action (note)
  • committed to retain
Contents
  • 1. History of chocolate -- Chocolate as a drink -- Eating chocolate -- Chocolate crumb -- White chocolate -- Chocolate marketing in the UK -- Chocolate is good for you -- References -- 2. Chocolate ingredients -- Cocoa beans -- Cocoa trees -- Commercial cocoa-producing countries -- Cocoa pods -- Fermentation -- Fermentation procedure -- Microbial and chemical changes -- Drying -- Storage and transport -- Sugar and sugar substitutes -- Sugar and its production -- Crystalline and amorphous sugar -- Lactose -- Glucose and fructose -- Sugar alcohols -- Polydextrose -- Milk and other dairy components -- Milk fat -- Milk proteins -- Milk powders -- Whey and lactose powders -- Chocolate crumb -- References -- Additional reading -- 3. Cocoa bean processing -- Beam cleaning -- Roasting and winnowing -- Problem of bean size variation -- Winnowing -- Bean roasting -- Nib and liquor roasting -- Roasters -- Chemical changes during roasting -- Maillard reaction -- Grinding cocoa nib --^
  • Cocoa mills -- Impact mills -- Disc mills -- Ball mills -- Cocoa butter and cocoa powder production -- Alkalising (dutching) -- Cocoa butter -- Cocoa powder -- References -- 4. Liquid chocolate making -- Chocolate milling -- Separate ingredient grinding mills -- Combined milling -- Chocolate conching -- Chemical changes -- Physical changes -- Viscosity reduction -- Conching machines -- Long conche -- Rotary conches -- Continuous low volume machines -- Three stages of conching -- References -- 5. Controlling the flow properties of liquid chocolate -- Viscosity -- Particle size -- Particle size distribution data -- Effect of particle size on viscosity -- Effect of fat additions on viscosity -- Moisture and chocolate flow -- Emulsifiers and chocolate viscosity -- Lecithin -- Polyglycerol polyricinoleate -- Other emulsifiers -- Degree of mixing -- References -- 6. Crystallising the fat in chocolate -- Structure of cocoa butter -- Different crystalline forms --^
  • Pre-crystallisation or tempering -- Mixing different fats (fat eutectics) -- Chocolate fat bloom -- Some types of non-cocoa vegetable fat -- Cocoa butter equivalents -- Enzyme interesterification -- Lauric fat cocoa butter replacers -- Non-lauric fat cocoa -- Butter replacers -- Low calorie fats -- 7. Manufacturing chocolate products -- Tempering -- Liquid chocolate storage -- Tempering machines -- Hand tempering -- Temper measurement -- Moulding -- Solid tablets -- Chocolate shells -- Enrobers -- Maintaining tempered chocolate -- Solidifying the chocolate -- Coolers -- Panning -- Chocolate coating -- Sugar panning -- References -- 8. Analytical techniques -- Particle size measurement -- Moisture determination -- Fat content measurement -- Viscosity determination -- Simple factory techniques -- Standard method -- Flavour -- Texture monitoring -- Crystallisation amount and type -- Nuclear magnetic resonance -- Differential scanning calorimetry -- References --^
  • 9. Different chocolate products -- Special recipes -- Ice-cream coatings -- Shape-retaining chocolate -- Modifying the fat phase -- Transparent coatings -- Water -- Building a framework of solid particles -- Air bubbles in chocolate -- Factors affecting bubble size -- Water evaporation bubbles -- Cream eggs and other filled chocolate shapes -- Multiple chocolates and centres -- 10. Legislation, shelf life and packaging -- Legislation -- Shelf life -- Packaging -- Foil and paper wrap -- Flow wrap -- Biopolymers -- Robotic packing -- References -- 11. Nutrition and health -- Nutrition -- Fats -- Carbohydrates -- Proteins -- Obesity -- Tooth decay -- Anti-caries factor in cocoa -- Tooth-friendly milk proteins -- Oxalic acid -- Oral acid -- Oral clearance -- Other alleged negative reactions -- Migraine and headaches -- Acne -- Allergies -- Positive health effects -- Psychoactive compounds -- References -- 12. Experiments with chocolate and chocolate products --^
  • Amorphous and crystalline sugar -- Particle separation -- Fat migration -- Cocoa butter separation -- Chocolate viscosity -- Particle size of chocolate -- Effect of lecithin -- Changing the continuous phase -- Chocolate temper -- Hardness measurement -- Chocolate composition and product weight control -- Distributions and probabilities -- Chromatography of colours -- Effectiveness of different packaging materials -- Viscosity and flavour -- Heat-resistance testing -- Coefficient of expansion -- Maillard reaction -- Glossary -- Subject index.
ISBN
  • 9780854049707 (hbk.)
  • 0854049703 (hbk.)
LCCN
^^2008399672
OCLC
180473557
Owning Institutions
Harvard Library