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The Birth of Freedom of Religion - Flushing Remonstrance, December 27, 1657


350 years ago, 30 Quaker farmers from the Flushing, Queens area signed an appeal to the governor of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant, to allow them to freely practice their religion. Stuyvesant had banned all religions outside of the Dutch Reformed Church from being practiced in the colony, which led to the persecution of Quakers, among others. In response to this petition the government of New Netherland threw some of the signers in jail and replaced the government of the town of Flushing with more reasonable substitutes.

A few years later, John Bowne of Flushing (then known as Vlissingen) started to allow the Quakers to hold meetings in his house. For this he was punished by being jailed and then by banishment to Holland, though he was himself of English ancestry and spoke no Dutch. After appealing to the Dutch West India Company, Bowne was able to convince the authorities of the benefits of religious tolerance, and in 1663 Stuyvesant was notified to end religious persecution.

The Remonstrance is considered by historians to be a forerunner of the first amendment of the Constitution and is sometimes referred to as the Magna Carta of the New World. To read the text of this truly remarkable document, click here.

To celebrate this anniversary the Flushing Remonstrance is currently being displayed at the Flushing Branch of the Queens Public Library. Incidentally, the Magna Carta is also being shown in New York, at Sotheby’s.


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I recently toured that area of Flushing. One can visit the Bowne House and several other locations of interest to students of Quaker and Queens' History. Worth the trip. - Jason P.

Thank you for this

I'm grateful to learn this bit of history. Thanks so much for presenting it.

Quaker ancestors in New York

While researching my ancestors in New York, I came across the name Thorn/Thorne. I, then, found my ancestors names on a Quaker meeting list. Nathaniel and Samuel Thorne. Now, I am curious about the Remonstrance. I am also looking for connections to my increasing number of African - American DNA match cousins on

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