New York City is undoubtedly one of the most important centers of international trade in the world. Every day, all kinds of consumer goods, commodities and professional services are exported and imported by New York City companies and through the metropolitan area's ports. Statistics on this activity are available in the International Trade chapter of NYCdata compiled by the Weissman Center for International Business, Zicklin School of Business at Baruch College. In order to succeed in this complex arena of business, one must be well informed and prepared for many situations. The Science, Industry and Business Library (SIBL) either has or can bring one into contact with the resources and programs which one needs to research potential international business opportunities. These resources include:
- handbooks about exporting and importing
- directories of companies in the United States and around the world
- electronic indexes to articles published in current periodicals covering business and industry in specific countries, trends in specific industries, and issues in international trade in general
- trade statistics issued by the United States, many foreign countries and non-governmental organizations such as the United Nations and OECD
- the USA Trade Online database of U.S. export/import data produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce
- government sponsored export promotion programs
They can be categorized into a number of areas such as general background information, market research and country information, regulations, business leads and contacts, shipping and logistics, and finance. On the following pages you will find such resources arranged by topic to help you answer many of the frequently asked questions in the field of international business. These guides are not exhaustive, so please visit the Science, Industry and Business Library for further assistance in finding the information you need.
International Trade Basics
If you are contemplating starting an international business venture, for instance, by exporting or importing a product or service, you may want to read some general works discussing the potential profits and pitfalls of conducting international business. SIBL holds a number of basic guides and handbooks. These include:
Breaking Into the Trade Game
Building an Import/Export Business
*R-SIBL HF1416.W43 2008
Export/Import Procedures and Documentation
Import/Export: How to Take Your Business Across Borders
International Marketing and Export Management
*R-SIBL HF1416.I617 2011
To find other similar titles in the library’s collection, browse the reference shelves in *R-SIBL HF1416 or the circulating collection in 658.8 or 658.84. Search the following subject headings in the online catalog:
- Export marketing
- International trade
- International business enterprises
On the internet, the following sites discuss issues involved in exporting:
- A Basic Guide to Exporting (Produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce)
- www.export.gov - The official U.S. government export portal includes a section, Are You Export Ready?, which is a self-assessment guide.
- SBA Guide to Exporting
Foreign Market Research and Trade Statistics
In order to sell a product or service, there must be consumers who want to buy it. Market research will help you determine how likely you are to find buyers for your product or service. Market research can help you find the largest or fastest growing markets for your product or service, and market trends, outlook, and practices in a particular place.
Market Research Resources
Market research data on U.S. markets is often difficult to find; market research reports are expensive, and most often not available in a public library. Foreign market data is even harder to come by. Several of the electronic resources at SIBL can help:
- Export.gov Market Research Library
Extensive library of foreign market reports including Country Commercial Guides and Industry Overviews. Requires free user registration.
- Business Monitor Online (BMI)
Research reports on over 175 global markets focusing on major industry sectors. Includes political, economic and business environment risk reports and SWOT analysis for each market.
- Economist Intelligence Unit Country Reports
Offers quarterly reports about the economic and political situation of almost every country.
- Emerging Markets - Internet Securities
Offers extensive current news, economic, industry, and financial information on many emerging market countries such as Brazil, Czech Republic, India and Vietnam.
- Factiva (formerly Dow Jones Interactive)
Searchable full-text and abstracting resource provides global content, including Dow Jones and Reuters newswires and The Wall Street Journal. Includes multilingual content covering 8,000 publications from 118 countries in 22 languages. Sources include general business and industry publications, newspapers, trade journals, newswires, company reports, radio and television transcripts, and images.
The library subscribes to a number of business periodical indexes, such as Business Source Premier,which allow you to search for articles in hundreds of business periodicals and trade publications. You may find articles discussing your country, your market or your industry.
Trade Statistics Resources
In addition to market research reports, export and import trade statistical data of particular products and commodities can yield information about the potential of a target market. Researching the export/import statistics for your product or commodity also provides hard data for use in drafting a business plan if you intend to seek financing from a bank or other source.
The Science, Industry, and Business Library offers access to three electronic databases of export/import statistical information produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce and the U.S. Bureau of the Census. They are available by reserving a workstation in the Electronic Information Center at SIBL. These databases are:
- USA Trade Online
- U.S. Exports of Merchandise
- U.S. Imports of Merchandise
Export and import commodities are often categorized in these databases by Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) number. These numbers are the most precise way of identifying your product. While it is possible to search for a product by key word, it is often more precise and efficient to use the HTS number. You can find these in print in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (available in the library) and on the Internet from the U.S. International Trade Commission.
- USA Trade Online
A product of the U.S. Department of Commerce, the detailed statistical data found within this database is current and will help you to determine how much of your product is either being exported from the United States and to where or from where the product is being imported into the United States. Reports can be created based on commodity and time period and can be further limited by foreign country, U.S. port and can be ranked by decreasing value. Reports either can be printed or exported to a spreadsheet.
The FT-900 is the monthly report of the U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services released by the U.S. Census Bureau. The full report is available in a variety of file formats or can also be accessed by individual chapters, or Individual Exhibits, such as U.S. Services by Major Category-Exports and Exports and Imports of Goods by Principal End-Use Category. An historical archive of the reports are available back to the early 1990s. Click on Country/Product Data at the top of the page for other more specific reports.
Among the library's print resources, the Direction of Trade Statistics Yearbook (*R-SIBL HF91.I65) published by the International Monetary Fund and the International Trade Statistics Yearbook (*R-SIBL HF91.U473) issued by the United Nations provide import/export statistics of commodities traded among the world's countries.
Some of the library's statistical publications are more specialized in scope such as the FAO Yearbook Trade (*R-SIBL HD9000.4.T7) published by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. It contains export/import data on basic food and agricultural products for all countries and territories of the world.
Country-specific Information and Statistics
Many of the world's most respected publications containing the most current country information are well represented in SIBL's collections. Titles of note include:
- Europa World Yearbook *R-SIBL JN1.E85
- Economist Intelligence Unit Country Reports McGraw Desk
- Economist Intelligence Unit Country Profiles Various call number locations
- OECD Economic Surveys Various call number locations
- World Economic Outlook *R-SIBL HC10.W7979
- International Financial Statistics Yearbook *R-SIBL HG61.I57 McGraw Desk
- World Competitiveness Yearbook *R-SIBL HF1414.W67
- CIA World Factbook *R-SIBL G122.U56
- Country Trade Sourcebook *R-SIBL HF1416.5.C68
- Craighead’s International Business, Travel, and Relocation Guide to … Countries *R-SIBL HF5549.5.E45.D56
SIBL regularly receives in print the official statistical annuals of most countries of the world that may be useful in furthering examining their markets' potential.
On the web, the International Trade Data System site maintained by the U.S. Department of the Treasury provides links to many country specific publications issued by various U.S. federal agencies including the CIA World Factbook, the State Department's Background Notes and the Commerce Department's Country Commercial Guides for selected countries. The CIA World Factbook and the Background Notes are directly available from:
The Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), a United States federal agency, maintains a page called the Investor's Information Gateway which includes many of the same federal government links above plus others from sources such as the OECD and the World Bank grouped into 20 different categories. OPIC is an agency which focuses on expanding American investment into approximately 150 developing nations. Another U.S. web resource is the Library of Congress site Portals to the World that provides links to a mixed bag of informational websites for most countries including areas such as Antarctica and the Panama Canal.
The GlobalEDGE site maintained by Michigan State University's Center for International Business Education and Research provides links to many excellent sources of country-specific business information.
With documents obtained from the World Bank Group and other foreign investment promotion agencies, the Investment Promotion Network (IPAnet) provides "free access to online foreign investment and privatization resources" which include reports covering country-specific economic conditions, investment-related laws, product markets and industry sectors. In addition, its directories provide contact information to over 30,000 organizations and individuals active in foreign investment.
Many countries make their national statistics available online. Both the U.S. Census Bureau and the U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics provide links to the central statistical offices of many countries.
Finding Trade Leads and Business Contacts
Once you have decided that there is a market for your product or service, you must then find actual buyers. Methods of identifying buyers include trade shows, trade missions, direct mail campaigns, and advertising. You may eventually need an in-country presence through a representative or distributor. Exporters may eventually need an in-country presence in their foreign market through a representative or distributor. The library can assist you in locating business leads and contacts.
There are many trade shows, both in the U.S. and abroad, where buyers and sellers can come together to discuss business, and sellers can display their wares. There are organizations on the web that can help you find trade shows, among them the Federation of International Trade Associations, www.tsnn.com and www.expo24-7.com as well as the U.S. Commmercial Service's Export.gov site. In SIBL’s reference collection, the annually published Trade Shows Worldwide (*R-SIBL T394.T723) provides a calendar of future trade and professional congresses.
- Export.gov Trade Leads Database - U.S. Government approved foreign business opportunities searchable by country, industry or keyword. Other customer location resources listed on the Export.gov Finding Partners and Trade Leads page.
- FI TA’s Worldbid – The Federation of International Trade Associations’ directory of purchase tenders from worldwide customers. Requires login to view this database.
SIBL contains many country- and industry-specific commerce directories that can help to locate business contacts abroad.
Other print directories in the library’s collection which might be of use are:
- World Business Directory *R-SIBL HF54.U5W667
- Directory of American Firms Operating in Foreign Countries *R-SIBL HF4538.A1D5
- Directory of Foreign Firms Operating in the United States *R-SIBL HG4057.A21943
- International Business in New York City : Directory *R-SIBL HG4264.3.Z65.I57
- Directory of United States Exporters *R-SIBL HF3011.U5436
- Directory of United States Importers *R-SIBL HF3012.U54J6
- The International Directory of Importers Various world region editions and call number locations
- The International Directory of Agents, Distributors & Wholesalers *R-SIBL HF5419.I58 McGraw Desk
- American Wholesalers and Distributors Directory *R-SIBL HF5421.G343 McGraw Desk
On the web, the U.S. Trade Information Center’s National Export Directory, available over the Globus & NTDB site, provides links to all sorts of trade support offices in the United States on the federal, state and local levels. Likewise, the Center’s Foreign Trade Offices Database is a directory of a variety of official trade offices of foreign governments located both in the United States and abroad.
Cross-Cultural Business Communication
The 21st century global marketplace offers many opportunities for international business expansion yet, also come with a variety of intercultural communication challenges that businesspeople must comprehend in order to succeed.
SIBL has a variety of books, journals, and electronic databases that deal with the topics of international business communication and practices as well as current business and economic conditions. These resources offer a foundation of information that will help prepare today’s businessperson for the communication challenges of the multinational business community.
To find books at SIBL on this topic, search the NYPL Catalog under any of the following SUBJECTS: (This is a partial list; there may be related subjects in the catalog)
- Americans-employment-foreign countries-handbooks manuals etc.
- Business communication-cross-cultural studies
- Business etiquette
- Businesspeople-foreign language competency
- Competition, International
- Corporate culture-cross-cultural studies
- Intercultural communication- handbooks, manuals, etc.
- International business enterprises-management-cross-cultural studies
- International business enterprises-personnel management- handbooks, manuals etc.
- International trade-cross-cultural studies
- National characteristics
- Negotiation in business
Below is a representative list of some books on this topic and their locations on the open shelves at SIBL:
- Cross-cultural communication: the essential guide to international business
- Cross-Cultural Business Behavior: Marketing, Negotiating, Sourcing and Managing Across Cultures
- Doing Business Internationally: the resource for business and social etiquette
- Dun & Bradstreet's guide to doing business around the world
*R-SIBL HF1416 .M78
- Global Smarts: the art of communicating and deal making anywhere in the world
- Kiss, bow or shake hands; how to do business in sixty countries
*R-SIBL HF5389. M67
- Management worldwide: the impact of societal culture on organizations around the globe
Some of the Business Databases, to which SIBL subscribes, that index full-text articles covering current foreign business topics are:
- Academic Source Premier
- Business Source Premier
- General Business File
Some phrases to use to find articles in these databases are:
- Cross-Cultural Orientation
- Exchange of Persons Programs
- International Communication
Project GLOBE, a research study sponsored by the University of Calgary’s Haskayne School of Business, investigated the cultures of many countries to determine how they affect how business is conducted in each country. In September 2003, a summary of the findings of Project GLOBE were presented at Baruch College’s Weissman Center for International Business. Click here to view the presentation. The full report was published in 2004 with the title, Culture, Leadership and Organizations: the GLOBE Study of Societies.
Executiveplanet.com is a website which provides valuable tips on business etiquette, customs and protocol for doing business worldwide. Guides are co-authored by experts in international business etiquette, who are available to answer your questions on the discussion board.
To find other material on the internet pertaining to intercultural business communication, try Google’s web directory of cross-cultural business communication sites.
International Sales Contract Basics, Terms of Sale and Methods of Payment
International trade means that business is transacted between vendors and customers located in different countries with their respective differences in law. The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) governs all contracts for the international sale of goods between parties whose principal places of business are located in the United States and other countries participating in the convention. The CISG has been adopted by most nations with developed economies and currently applies to two-thirds of all world trade. Pace University Law School maintains a thorough website on the CISG and International Commercial Law at http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu.
There are a number of books covering international sales contracts such as-
ICC Model Commercial Agency Contract
ICC Model International Sale Contract
International Business Transactions in a Nutshell
International Commercial Transactions
Negotiating and Structuring International Commercial Transactions
A proper international sales contract should also clearly state the agreed upon terms of sale, that is, the point at which the title to the goods and the financial responsibility thereof devolve from the vendor to the customer. Such terms are usually specified by the use of Incoterms such as EXW, FAS, FOB, CFR, CIF, etc. the definitions of which can be found in Incoterms 2000 published by the International Chamber of Commerce. Online, an explanation of Incoterms can also be found at http://www.i-b-t.net/incoterms.html and http://www.unzco.com/basicguide/c11.html#Terms.
Methods of payment are also spelled out in the contract whether the customer agrees to pay by open account, letter of credit or payment in advance which are the most common terms of payment. This is normally arranged through your own commercial banker, however, it is important to understand all the various accepted and customary methods of payment for international business transactions. The online A Basic Guide to Exporting contains a chapter on Methods of Payment. A letter of credit, often abbreviated as L/C, is the most frequently used method of payment between international buyers and sellers especially if there is no prior history of transactions between the two parties. According to the site, it is a “document issued by a bank … stating its commitment to pay someone a stated amount of money on behalf of a buyer so long as the seller meets very specific terms and conditions. Letters of credit are more formally known as "documentary letters of credit.” Other less common methods of payment include documentary collections, open account and payment in advance.
Some of the library’s reference titles include:
ICC Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits *R-SIBL HG3746.R69
Letters of Credit *R-SIBL HG3745.R69
The Law of Letters of Credit: Commercial and Standby Credits *R-SIBL KF1028.D652
Letters of Credit *R-SIBL KF1028.M331
Standby and Commercial Letters of Credit
International Trade Regulations
When conducting business between the United States and another country, you most likely will have to contend with a multitude of national tariffs, regulations, and documentation requirements of both countries.
Generally speaking, if you are the exporter, you are responsible for shipping your product abroad by employing the services of a freight forwarder. It is the responsibility of your customer, the importer, to deal with import regulations and paying any customs duty in the import country. He or she usually employs the services of a customs broker to handle these details. However, if you are exporting a product sensitive to national security, it is your responsibility to be aware of any U.S. export restrictions. Furthermore, despite the fact that it is not usual for the exporter to be liable for import regulations, it would not be a bad idea to be aware of them for your intended export country.
Finding import regulations of foreign countries is often quite difficult to uncover, however, SIBL holds a limited number of resources. There are also some official and unoffical websites that cover this area as well as U.S. export regulations.
- One can find out about business regulations and practices in foreign countries, including some legal information, through Dun & Bradstreet’s Exporters' Encyclopaedia (*R-SIBL HF3011.E9), which has a several page chapter on almost every country.
- Also in SIBL’s collection is a series of handbooks called Doing Business in … (ex. Doing Business in Japan) published by Price Waterhouse.
- The U.S. Department of State’s Country Commercial Guides, found within the Globus & NTDB database, contain a section titled “trade regulations and standards” found in each country’s report relating trade restrictions peculiar to that country.
- The Hong Kong Trade Development maintains a page of Customs, Tariffs and Import Duties for hundreds of countries worldwide including necessary documentation, import and export restrictions, contacts, etc.
- Consult U.S. Export Regulations (*R-SIBL KF1987.A15.U84) for handling export products sensitive to national security.
- Information about export documents, licenses and requirements can be found on the Bureau of Industry and Security (formerly the Bureau of Export Administration) and the U.S. Customs and Border Protection sites.
- AES Direct is the U.S. Census Bureau's online database for filing Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) information.
- Trading with the NAFTA countries, Canada and Mexico, is detailed on the U.S. Trade Information Center’s NAFTA site and the U.S. Customs and Border Protection site.
As an importer you are responsible for knowing all about U.S. import regulations and customs duty. An experienced customs broker can help immensely with this task. See the next chapter on Shipping and Logistics for information about finding customs brokers.
- General information about U.S. trade regulations can be found at the website of the U.S. Customs & Border Protection, a division of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Here, one finds a variety of links to import duty rates, quotas, international agreements, etc.
- Importing into the United States: A Guide for Commercial Importers – Published by the U.S. Customs Service.
- Customs regulations are found in Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) both in print in the library’s collection and online in the CFR section of the National Archives and Records Administrations site.
- Import duties are determined by consulting the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) which is available in print in SIBL’s collection and online on the HTS section of the United States International Trade Commission site and also on the HTS section of the U.S. Trade Information Center site.
- Another useful reference work regarding import and United States regulations is the Ports of Entry & U.S. Import Regulations (*R-SIBL KF6680.99.P67) published under the main title of U.S. Custom House Guide.
Shipping and Logistics
When exporting or importing, you will likely need the assistance of third parties to help you complete your business transaction. They have experience in shipping to and dealing with officials and agents in your intended import country.
The process of actually moving your goods overseas can be quite complicated. You must be concerned with packing, labeling, documentation, insurance, foreign and, sometimes, domestic regulations. Freight forwarders can help with all this and determine the most economical means of shipment, whether by land, air or sea. While you should understand the logistics of export or import, you will almost certainly need the services of a freight forwarder who will handle most of the details for you.
Once your shipment has arrived in the port of entry, the services of a customs broker are necessary, but not mandatory, to get them through customs by handling the necessary paperwork, documentation, payment of duty, etc.
Your local chamber of commerce, trade associations, international departments of banks or an international trade specialist can help direct you to reputable freight forwarders or customs brokers. As a start, you can also consult several directories available at the library:
- Membership Directory (National Customs Brokers & Forwarders Association of America) *R-SIBL HJ6685.N36a
International Trade Finance
If you are a businessperson, you probably already have a relationship with a commercial bank which should be the first source of financing you use. The New York Small Business Resource Center’s Business Owner's Manual has a general section on financing, which is also applicable to financing an import or export business. Listed below are a few Internet sources which may be of particular interest to an exporter:
- SBA Export Working Capital Loan Program
The U.S. Small Business Administration offers loan guarantees through participating financial institutions of $1,000,000 or less. SBA Export Express loans are also available for amounts $250,000 and less with a quicker application turn-around time.
- Export-import Bank of the United States offers loan programs for amounts greater than approximately $1,000,000.
- The U.S. Department of Commerce’s export.gov portal provides a full listing of these two programs in addition to other United States financing schemes.
SCORE (Service Corps of Retired Executives) or your local Small Business Development Center can provide further information and counseling about these and other export/import finance programs. The U.S. Export Assistance Center is available for information and counseling about these and other export finance opportunities.
International Trade Assistance Resources
There are many New York City area and U.S. Government assistance programs that exist to help the small businessperson cultivate his or her international business venture.
New York City Area Organizations
SCORE, sponsored by the U.S. Small Business Administration, brings volunteer business executives together with entrepreneurs and small business people in order to give them guidance and advice about their small businesses. The New York City chapter can help you with all types of international business matters such as determining fertile markets for your product or service, finding business partners and distributors in foreign markets, or finding financing for your business venture. In addition to one-on-one counseling, SCORE offers programs and seminars, many of which are related to international trade. SCORE representatives are available at the Science, Industry and Business Library for one hour counseling sessions by appointment Tuesday-Saturday 11:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. and Tuesday-Thursday 4:00 to 7:00 p.m. They can be reached at the library at 212-592-7033 during the above business hours. SCORE can also be contacted at their central New York location: 26 Federal Plaza (Duane St. at Broadway), Room 3100, New York, NY 10278. Tel: 212-264-4507.
New York U.S. Export Assistance Center of the U.S. Commercial Service, a division of the U.S. Department of Commerce, offers a wide range of one-on-one counseling services helping businesses to export their products and services. They can help identify foreign markets, put you in touch with foreign distributors, agents, and importers, lead you to SBA and Export-Import Bank financing and offer other kinds of general support. The New York office is located at 20 Exchange Place, 40th Floor, New York, NY 10005. Tel: 212-809-2675.
Office of the Mayor of the City of New York, Division for International Business – Promotes New York City as a location for international business concerns.
Empire State Development – Offers, among other services, export marketing counseling for either entering or expanding in foreign markets. Offices are located in New York City, throughout New York State and abroad in Brazil, Chile, South Africa, the United Kingdom, Israel and Japan.
NEXCO – Hosts many international trade workshops and conferences in New York for international trade professionals.
Baruch College Weissman Center for International Business – Sponsors numerous programs, conferences and forums on topics relating to global economics and international trade.
New York City Business Solutions - While not intended specifically for international trade assistance, this city agency includes a listing of local, state, federal and nonprofit Import/Export Trade Resources
U.S. Government and other Organizations' Resources
SBA Office of International Trade – The international trade advisory service division of the U.S. Small Business Administration.
U.S. Trade Information Center – Maintained by the International Trade Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce, it is intended as a directory of resources to answer the frequently asked questions regarding export such as documentation, regulations, country information, market research, trade events, freight forwarders, assistance programs, etc.
www.export.gov - The official international trade portal created by the U.S. Department of Commerce with many links to materials produced by other U.S. Government agencies related to exporting.
BuyUSA.gov – United States Commercial Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce site to promote the export of U.S. products and services. Includes “Doing Business in…” guide for each country.
U.S. International Trade Administration – The international trade promotion division of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
U.S. Trade and Development Agency – Fosters U.S. commercial involvement in developing countries and works to improve the infrastructure and business trading environment in those countries.
GlobalEDGE – Michigan State University’s Center for International Business Education and Research portal for international trade research.
Federation of International Trade Associations – Features a regularly updated list of useful websites for international trade professionals.
United States Council for International Business – Represents the interests of American businesspersons to the U.S. Government, United Nations, and European Union among other international bodies.
Business Council for International Understanding – Sponsors programs to encourage dialogue between U.S. business interests and the U.S. and foreign governments.
World Chambers Network – Features an online directory of local chambers of commerce worldwide
International Chamber of Commerce – International body working to increase international trade and job creation.
World Trade Centers Association On-Line – Network of World Trade Centers in place to help business people expand their businesses globally.
Organization of Women in International Trade – Networking organization for women and men doing business in all facets of international trade.
U.S.-China Business Council – With offices in Washington, DC, Beijing and Shanghai, this non-profit organization represents the interests of established U.S. corporations as well as small- and medium-sized companies currently operating in China or intending to enter the Chinese market. Also provides tailored business advisory services along with industry and market research.
Hong Kong Trade Development Council – “The global marketing arm and public service hub for Hong Kong-based manufacturers, traders and service exporters”. Their “activities are especially geared to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the chief drivers of Hong Kong’s trade”.
JETRO (Japan External Trade Organization) – A Japanese government organization “that promotes mutually beneficial investment and trade relations between Japan and other nations”.
Trans-Atlantic Business Council – Represents the interests of EU and U.S. companies in transatlantic trade issues.
Central European Business Association - New York based organization which promotes "the mutual advancement of professionals and students interested in economic and business developments taking place in Central Europe".