Want to find out what criteria mental health professionals use to diagnose mental disorders? Here are a few conditions and disorders (complete with classification numbers) that are either new in this edition of the DSM, or that I had not heard of prior to perusing this fascinating tome.
292.0 Caffeine withdrawal Disorder (D/O)
299.00 Autism Spectrum D/Os
300.19 Factitious D/O
300.3 Hoarding D/O
300.7 Illness Anxiety D/O
302.3 Transvestic D/O (choice of personal dress should not be pathologized)
304.30 Cannabis use D/O (moderate to severe)
305.90 Caffeine Intoxication D/O
307.3 Stereotypic Movement D/O
307.47 Nightmare D/O
307.59 Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake D/O
309.21 Separation Anxiety D/O
312.31 Gambling D/O
312.34 Intermittent Explosive D/O (bad temper)
315.35 Childhood - Onset Fluency D/O (Stuttering)
333.94 Restless Legs Syndrome
"Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention" include the following:
V61.8 Sibling Relational Problem
V62.3 Academic or Educational Problem
"Conditions for Further Study" that were mentioned:
Internet Gaming D/O (I heard of a guy who had a leg amputated due to lack of circulation during excessive computer use.)
Persistent Complex Bereavement D/O
The following sections are included in the book to facilitate understanding:
Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV--TR to DSM-5
Glossary of Cultural Concepts of Distress
DSM-5 Advisors and Other Contributors (There were many clinicians with PhDs and/or MDs.)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 by American Psychiatric Association, 2013
I like the numerical classification system that the DSM-5 uses, which is somewhat like the Dewey Decimal Classification system that public and school libraries have. I have been eagerly awaiting the new edition of the DSM-5 ever since I heard that "Internet addiction" was included in it as a mental disorder. It has been twelve years since the DSM-IV--TR was published. Actually, "Internet Gaming Disorder" is listed under the "Conditions for Further Study," which means that researchers will have to look more into this phenomenon to see if and when it should be included in a subsequent edition of the DSM. Clinicians in the mental health field include the numbers of their diagnoses on the insurance forms so that they can be reimbursed.
I used the DSM-IV--TR (2000) while I was obtaining a master's degree in forensic psychology at John Jay College. We used it in a clinical psychology class to learn how to diagnose individuals in clinical practice. Portions of the DSM-5 are now available online, including Online Assessment Measures, which includes the World Health Organization Disability Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0.
It is very important to remember that diagnoses are made in a cultural context, while keeping in mind the other things that are happening in the person's life. Diagnoses are not made in isolation, and they are primarily used to aid the development of treatment plans, provide educational intervention and to receive reimbursement from insurance companies. Practitioners must be trained in order to make accurate and valid diagnoses. Mental health professionals are not simply labelling people in order to stigmatize them.
However, in 1961, Thomas Szasz wrote a book called The Myth of Mental Illness: Foundation of a Theory of Personal Conduct. In the Rosenhan experiment, eight people malingered and feigned auditory hallucinations in an attempt to gain admission to 12 different psychiatric hospitals. All were admitted, and it took the pseudo patients an average of 19 days in order to be released from the hospital. In at least one case, a participant was labelled schizophrenic, and s/he was considered to be "in remission" at the time of discharge.