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Food for Thought

My Favorite North African Vegetarian Recipes

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The cuisine of North Africa Viktor Vasnetsov. The Flying Carpet (1880)Viktor Vasnetsov. The Flying Carpet (1880)(Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia) was influenced by the many peoples who settled there: African, Islamic, Arab, Berber, Ottoman, French, Italian and Spanish. It has its roots in the beginning of civilization itself.

In addition to use in bread and pastry dough, wheat, an important staple in North African cooking, is made into bulgur and couscous. Bulgur, or cracked wheat, is made by partially cooking the wheat grains in water, drying them, then breaking them into pieces. Couscous is semolina (mostly durum wheat or barley), rolled in flour to produce a cross between grain and pasta.

The vegetarian tradition of North Africa makes use of a multitude of whole food ingredients: Honey, sesame paste (tahini), almonds, pistachios, and pine nuts are used in both sweet and savory recipes. Butter and clarified butter (called ghee in India) are traditionally the preferred medium of cooking for those who can afford them. Olive oil is prevalent in Mediterranean coastal areas. For better or worse, vegetable oils have lately replaced traditional oils because they are cheaper and considered healthier. Common spice mixtures include cinnamon, cloves, cumin, coriander, tumeric, salt, black pepper, bay leaves, caraway seeds, fenugreek leaves, paprika, thyme, saffron, nutmeg, and ginger. Chili peppers are used in a paste called harissa.

Green leaf vegetables such as mint, parsley, many varieties of cabbage, spinach, and chard are used in abundance. Common root and bulb vegetables include potatoes, onions and garlic, as well as carrots, turnips, and beets. Cucumbers, squash, tomatoes, zucchini, and eggplant are the most common ingredients in vegetable stews and salads. Common fruits include lemons, oranges, apricots, figs, dates, and pomegranates. Green and black olives, and capers arrived in the area before the Romans. Commonly used legumes include fava beans, chickpeas, haricot beans, lentils, and split peas.

Milk, fresh or soured, is another important staple in North Africa. Yogurt, a Turkish contribution, is commonly consumed plain, used in cooking and in salad dressings, or diluted as a drink. White cheese, like the Greek feta, is made from sheep's or goat's milk. Eggs are also very important ingredients in savory cooking. Under the Ottoman Empire, dense, sweet coffee was brought to the area, and is now widely consumed throughout North Africa and the Middle East.

Tabouli

adapted from The New Moosewood Cookbook by Mollie Katzen

The name for this bulgur wheat and parsley salad, tabouli, translates as "little seasoning," and is derived from the Arabic word tabil.

Algerian turban cover, Wikimedia CommonsAlgerian turban cover, Wikimedia Commons

Ingredients:

1 cup bulgur wheat
1 1/2 cups boiling water
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon pepper
juice of 1 lemon
1/4 cup olive oil
4 cloves garlic, minced
4 scallions, chopped
1 cup chopped parsley, packed
1/4 cup mint leaves, chopped
3 medium tomatoes, diced
1 can pitted black olives, chopped

Preparation:

Pour boiling water over wheat, cover with plastic wrap, and soak for 30 minutes. Stir in salt, lemon juice, oil, garlic, pepper, and scallions, and chill for 30 minutes. Before serving, mix in the rest of the ingredients.

Falafel

These chickpea fritters are traditionally deep fried. For a lighter, more delicate version, pan fry in almond oil. The word falafel comes from the Arabic falāfil, the plural of filfil which means "pepper," from the Sanskrit word pippalī, or "long pepper."

Ingredients:

2 cups dried chickpeas, soaked in water overnight
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 small onion, coarsely choppedArab restaurant, Egypt., NYPL Digital ID 88469Arab restaurant, Egypt., NYPL Digital ID 88469
6 garlic cloves
1 tablespoon ground cumin
1 tablespoon ground coriander
1/4 teaspoon red pepper flakes
3/4 cup parsley, packed
salt and black pepper to taste
vegetable or almond oil, for frying

Preparation:

Drain, then pulse chickpeas in food processor to coarsely grind. Add baking powder, onion, garlic, spices, and herbs; process until mixture is pureed. Heat oil in frying pan or in deep fryer to 375 degrees. Roll falafel mixture into 1 inch diameter balls. Fry in deep fryer for 5 minutes. If pan frying, saute until brown on both sides. Drain on paper towels. Serve in pita pockets with lettuce, chopped tomatoes, hummus, baba ganoush, and tahini sauce and/or harissa.

Tahini Sauce

The English word tahini comes from the Arabic ṭaḥīnīa, and is derived from the verb "to grind." This extremely popular sauce is used in most North African sandwiches.

Ingredients:

1/2 cup tahini
1/2 cup low fat yogurt or water
juice of 1 lemon
2 garlic cloves, chopped
salt to taste
pinch hot paprika or cayenne

Preparation:

Combine all the ingredients in a food processor until creamy.

Harissa

adapted from The North African Kitchen by Fiona Dunlop

The word for the fiery Tunesian chili paste harissa is derived from the Arabic verb harasa, "to pound."

Ingredients:

1 tablespoon coriander seeds
1 tablespoon caraway seeds
2 teaspoons cumin seeds
9 oz. fresh red chilis, roughly chopped
cloves from 1 head of garlic, peeled and roughly chopped
1 tablespoon dried mint
1/4 bunch fresh cilantro
1 tablespoon salt
2-3 tablespoons olive oil

Preparation:

Toast seeds in pan without oil for about 2 minutes. Grind to powder in spice grinder. Add this blend to rest of ingredients in a food processor, adding enough olive oil to make a stiff paste. Put in sterilized jar with a thin layer of olive oil over top; store in refrigerator.

Restaurant Style Hummus

adapted from Cook's Illustrated

The English word hummus comes from the Arabic ḥimmaṣ, meaning "chickpeas."

Cicer sativum, Chick pea, Garbanzo, NYPL Digital ID 1130776,Cicer sativum, Chick pea, Garbanzo, NYPL Digital ID 1130776Ingredients: 

1/4 cup water
juice of 1 lemon
6 tablespoons tahini
2 tablespoons olive oil
1 15 oz. can drained and rinsed chickpeas
3 cloves garlic
salt to taste
1/2 teaspoon cumin
1/2 teaspoon Ras el Hanout
hot paprika

Preparation:

Combine water and lemon juice in one bowl, tahini and oil in another. Put chickpeas, garlic, salt, and spices in food processor and blend for 15 seconds. Scrape down sides of bowl, then add lemon/water mix and process for 1 minute. Scrape bowl down again, add oil and tahini with processor running and blend until hummus is fluffy. Transfer to plate orbowl, and spinkle top with paprika. Serve chilled or at room temperature.

Ras el Hanout

from Classic Vegetarian Cooking From the Middle East and North Africa by Habeeb Salloum

Ras el Hanout means "top of the shop." For North African souks, or spice merchants, it is a point of honor to have the most sought after version of this blend.

Ingredients:

1 tablespoon ground cumin
1 tablespoon ground ginger
1/2 teaspoon turmeric
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1 tablespoon black pepper
1 tablespoon ground coriander seeds
1/4 teaspoon cayenne
1/2 teaspoon ground allspice
1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg
1/4 teaspoon ground cloves
1/2 teaspoon mace
1/2 teaspoon cardamom

Preparation:

Combine all ingredients. Store in an airtight container at cool room temperature.

Baba Ganoush

adapted from Williams-Sonoma's Small Plates by Joanne Weir

According to food legend, baba ganoush (which means "spoiled old daddy" in Arabic) was created by a doting daughter who delighted in pampering her toothless father. This dish tastes best when the eggplant is grilled to char the skin, then baked until soft in the oven. I have adapted this recipe for city kitchens. (If you like, you can char the eggplant's skin on a gas burner on your stove top, then finish it off in the oven. Be sure to use caution around an open flame!)

Ingredients:

1 large eggplant
1/4 cup tahini
juice of 1 lemonAuberginen im Supermarkt, Claus Ableiter, Wikimedia CommonsAuberginen im Supermarkt, Claus Ableiter, Wikimedia Commons
3 cloves garlic
salt to taste
1/2 teaspoon cumin
1/2 teaspoon Ras el Hanout
1 tablespoon olive oil
hot paprika

Preparation:

Pre-heat oven to 400 degrees. Score eggplant with a knife down its length at about 1 inch intervals. Wrap eggplant in aluminum foil and roast for one hour, rotating every 15 minutes, until eggplant is soft. Remove from oven and peel. Place cooled eggplant in food processor, add tahini, lemon, garlic, salt and spices and blend until smooth.Transfer to plate or bowl, and sprinkle top with paprika. Serve at room temperature.

Although not strictly vegetarian, these cookbooks are full of of delicious, healthy North African and Middle Eastern recipes.

Comments

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So love this blog!!!

Middle Eastern and North African dishes are my weakness in the food world.I have tried everything you mentioned except for the eggplant because I'm allergic. These are great recipes to spring into!!!

Thanks, Zena!

I have searched far and wide for a hummus recipe that approximates the great NYC takeout I've eaten over the years... This recipe, with the Ras el Hanout added, is as close as I've gotten thus far! Enjoy!

what is ras el hanout, and

what is ras el hanout, and where can i get it in nyc?

Ras el Hanout is a spice blend

... the recipe is in the blog. I don't know if a pre-made version is available, but you can get the ingredients at Indian Food Stores like Kalustyans on Third Avenue in Manhattan, http://kalustyans.com/, or at Patel Brothers on 74th Street in Queens, http://patelbros.com/ -- or at your local supermarket, for a lot more money!! Hope this helps.

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